For us, “Botox” – a magical tool that deprives of wrinkles and surprising abilities. For doctors injection preparations of botulinum toxin – a great way to relieve the state of a variety of patients. How does the “Botox” why beauticians vie for “crow’s feet” and how to change the shape of the face by injection, “Gazeta.ru” was told at the Institute of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology.
The word “Botox” has long been a household name – for him, we understand the procedure and drugs for wrinkles. However, doctors insist that in reality we are talking about botulinum toxin – the poison, secreted by special bacteria. Already on the basis of its established medicines – “Botox”, “Dysport”, “Istomin”, “Lan took” and American “Relations”. This is just one of the facts about Boto … sorry, botulinum toxin! You’re still eight. Catherine Tchaikovsky, Candidate of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medical Advisor of the Institute of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology, and Mikhail Pavlyuk, urologist, andrologist, Head of Polyclinic of “Institute of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology”, told “Gazeta.re” how, where and why to inject botulinum toxin.
Catherine Tchaikovsky, PhD. Pharm. Science, Medical Advisor of the Institute of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology and Mikhail Pavlyuk, urologist, andrologist, Head of Polyclinic OA “Institute of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology”
1. The first botulinum toxin began to study military doctors
The name “botulism” comes from the Latin bottles, which means “sausage”. Before the invention of lids for canning meat products stored, filling fat – and if they are thermally treated badly kept producing bacteria toxin. Sam toxin was identified in the XX century: he studied, among other things, military doctors as part of the creation of biological weapons and military protection from botulism programs. Fortunately, it is such a designation was not used.
The mechanism of action of botulinum toxin in the muscles is the same, whether the poisoning low-quality products or medication injected into the muscle: the toxin blocks the transmission of a nerve signal to the muscle, and she loses the ability to contract.
It comes relaxation – relaxation. This effect was persistent, but reversible – eventually link nerve and muscle recovers and returns to the muscle’s ability to contract.
2. For the first time the botulinum toxin used in medicine, not Estheticians Botox
Anyway, it was not a “Botox” and a drug called “Aluminum” that in 1977 the American ophthalmologist Alan Scott used for the treatment of blepharospasm, a condition in which a person has painful eyelids are closed, not open his eyes. That he belonged to the idea of using botulinum toxin in ophthalmology – it helps to relax the muscles around the eyeball. “Botox” – the first batch of the commercial preparation of botulinum toxin was released in 1979.
The possibility of correction of facial wrinkles was the accidental discovery of American doctors – Alastair and Jean Carruthers.
Alistair, an ophthalmologist, has used the “Botox” for the treatment of patients with blepharospasm. And he began to note that the introduction of botulinum toxin in the circular muscle of the eye goes not only spasm century but smoothed, “crow’s feet” at the corners of the eyes.
His wife, Jean, dermakosmetolog, beginning already targeted use of this drug for the correction of facial wrinkles. And very successfully. It opened a new era not only in cosmetology. It’s very simple: face mimic muscles fibers woven into the skin, and muscle contraction wrinkled skin. Relaxes the muscles – smoothes wrinkles.
3. Botulinum toxin is used not only in cosmetics
In addition to ophthalmology, botulinum toxin is applied in other areas of medicine. This primarily Neurology – treatment of torticollis, facial nerve neuropathy, hemifacial spasm, abnormal spasm after stroke and cerebral palsy. After injection of botulinum toxin in spastic muscles, kids get up to the full stop and start walking.
The new indication – the treatment of a chronic headache and migraine. Injections of botulinum toxin in certain points of the head and neck suppress the production of active compounds responsible for the formation of pain.
Another area – urology. Botulinum toxin is used in certain types of urinary incontinence (including patients with overactive bladder), chronic pelvic pain.
Treatment of local excess sweating – hyperhidrosis – engaged and neurologists, and beauticians.
After injection into the skin, such as underarm sweat glands secrete sweat cease.
Hands, feet, armpits are dry. At the same time sweating in general (and this is a very important physiological function) does not suffer.
4. Botulinum toxin can help cure depression
During the experience of emotions, we cut certain facial muscles, thus forming a characteristic facial expression – the expression of joy, sadness, anger, surprise, dissatisfaction. Most of the negative emotions associated with reduced muscle brow area, where there are characteristic folds.
By law, the inverse relation of mimic muscle contraction associated with a particular emotion, the brain receives signals that enhance the experience of this emotion. Constantly frown? Stung by all the negative!
Studies have shown that the relaxation using the botulinum toxin area brow muscles improves mood, reduces depression symptoms. This effect was also a random clinical discovery: an American physician Eric Finzi tried to smooth out the wrinkles of the forehead and brow area of their elderly mother suffering from depression.
So my mom wanted to do something good! After some time, the mood of the mother improved. And then we began the study with the participation of many patients. Perhaps the “erasing” the face of signs of negative emotions, cosmetologists will be able to make people a little happier?
5. In some cases, the botulinum toxin can be used in children and adolescents
At what age can use the drug botulinum toxin is determined by instructions. For example, “Dysport” and “Botox” can be used in children from two years old, because one of the indications – the treatment of muscle spasm with cerebral palsy. In aesthetic medicine, botulinum toxin is usually administered at the age of at least 18 years – before it’s just not necessary.
But there are exceptions – and then require permission from parents or guardians.
So it was, for example, the extremely shy kid who looked askance at the world, and all of his foreheads was dotted with deep wrinkles, like an old man. After injection of botulinum toxin wrinkles are smoothed out, and eventually, the young man began to open to see the world. This important aspect of Botulinum – the ability to get rid of the habit to frown, squint, etc.
The other side of the coin – a series of scandals in the US, when the obsessed beauty contests mom injected botulinum toxin his young daughters, who were allegedly wrinkles. Now America has actively discussed the need for legislative restrictions like parental insanity.
6. Botulinum toxin not only corrects wrinkles
Correction of facial muscles – the most famous, but not the only indication for botulinum toxin injections in cosmetology. If the chin muscle tense – lumpy chin like a peach pit, – save the botulinum toxin.
Lowered the tip of the nose, wide nose, nostrils mobility also corrected using botulinum toxin preparations.
You can lift the eyebrows as a whole, can only eyebrow tail, giving it the shape of gull-wing.
The line of facial contours and shape of the face is also amenable to correction. A person can pull up – with the help of “Nefertiti lift”. possible to square the face oval. In Asian countries, with the help of botulinum toxin injection is carried out “lift” the breasts (small size), correction of the curvature of the legs. According to the majority of doctors, the effect of such procedures doubtful, but certain parts of the body functions can be affected.
7. Botulinum toxin ceases to act very rarely
Cases where during long-term treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin loses, very rare, but they exist. The effect of muscle relaxation may be reduced or may disappear altogether.
Neurologists bind that the former injection scheme becomes inefficient, with calcium and zinc deficiency may be the reception of certain medications.
Cosmetologists say that as skin aging and face a whole lot of wrinkles become associated not only with increased muscle tone, but also changes in other tissues, and therefore, their correction becomes more difficult.
Finally, botulinum toxin – protein and it may be produced in the body of its neutralizing antibody. However, even if present in most patients, the effects of Botulinum maintained. It is important to remember that at the termination of the use of the toxin within a few years antibodies “washed out” and the effect of treatment is recovered.
8. After the injection of botulinum toxin can smile
At the dawn of Aesthetic Botulinum really achieved the effect perfectly smooth shiny forehead, eyebrows still, “freezing” the area around the eyes. Women smiled only with his lips.
But with a man whose face does not reflect the emotions, it becomes unpleasant to communicate!
Therefore, injection is carried out today in the art of so-called “human face”. The doctor is doing everything possible to smooth wrinkles while maintaining normal facial expressions. Berezhnaya all refer to the circular muscle of the eye, so as not to affect the function of a smile.
With sincere smile orbicularis oculi muscle is reduced by all means: sometimes one “foot” allows you to save the friendly face.